Golden mice reproduce all year long. However, the reproductive season varies geographically. The majority of O. nuttalli reproduce from September to spring in Texas but from March to October in Kentucky and Tennessee. The breeding period in Missouri also lasts from spring to fall and extends from April until October. Golden mice in captivity tend to reproduce most frequently during the early spring and late summer. Because the gestation period is only about 25–30 days, females can produce many litters in one year. Litters tend to be larger in the fall than the spring. Captive mothers have been known to produce up to seventeen litters in an eighteen-month period. A litter of golden mice typically consists of two or three young, but ranges from one to four. Aside from the mother, all other adults leave the nest when the litter is born. Newborn golden mice have a rapid growth and development rate and are able to achieve independence by three weeks of age with sexual maturity following within a few weeks.