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Lichen

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A lichen is a composite organism that emerges from algae or cyanobacteria living among the filaments (hyphae) of the fungi in a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship. The fungi benefit from the carbohydrates produced by the algae or cyanobacteria via photosynthesis. The algae or cyanobacteria benefit by being protected from the environment by the filaments of the fungi, which also gather moisture and nutrients from the environment, and (usually) provide an anchor to it. Although some photosynthetic partners in a lichen can survive outside the lichen, the lichen symbiotic association extends the ecological range of both partners, whereby most descriptions of lichen associations describe them as symbiotic. However, while symbiotic, the relationship is probably not mutualistic, since the algae give up a disproportionate amount of their sugars (see below). Both partners gain water and mineral nutrients mainly from the atmosphere, through rain and dust. The fungal partner protects the alga by retaining water, serving as a larger capture area for mineral nutrients and, in some cases, provides minerals obtained from the substrate. If a cyanobacterium is present, as a primary partner or another symbiont in addition to a green alga as in certain tripartite lichens, they can fix atmospheric nitrogen, complementing the activities of the green alga.

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Flavoparmelia caperata - Wikipedia, Foliose lichen - Wikipedia, Fruticose lichen - Wikipedia, Elegant Sunburst Lichen | New Hampshire Garden Solutions, Lichens of the Arboretum » Arnold Arboretum, Toowoomba Plants: The Lichen Problem, Lichens — Australian Antarctic Division, Barberry Bearries | New Hampshire Garden Solutions, Lichens of the Arctic (U.S. National Park Service), Lichen has a lot to tell you about your trees, Rock Greenshield Lichen | New Hampshire Garden Solutions, Fungi | Tentative Plant Scientist, British Soldier Lichens – Greg's World, I’m Lichen this Field Guide | Field Naturalist, Lobaria pulmonaria - Wikipedia, Algae, Lichens, and Mosses on Plants | Pacific Northwest ..., Yeast emerges as hidden third partner in lichen symbiosis ..., Lichen - Wikipedia, Lichen - Wikipedia, Fringed Wrinkle Lichen | New Hampshire Garden Solutions, What's in a Lichen? How Scientists Got It Wrong for 150 ..., Common Greenshield Lichen | New Hampshire Garden Solutions, moss and lichen – graveyards of Scotland, lichen, Yellow Wall Lichen | National Botanic Garden of Wales, Lichen Habitat, Lichens | New Hampshire Garden Solutions, lichen - Wiktionary, Cladonia - Wikipedia, Science Minus Details: What is Lichen? Why is it so cool??, I’m Lichen It! | Missouri Department of Conservation, Spotted Camouflage Lichen | New Hampshire Garden Solutions, Wanderin' Weeta (With Waterfowl and Weeds): More mushrooms ..., Science in the woods.: Lichens, Rock Greenshield Lichen | New Hampshire Garden Solutions, Poplar Sunburst Lichen | New Hampshire Garden Solutions, The Lichen Symbiosis Part 1 | Whiteknights biodiversity, Common Greenshield Lichen | New Hampshire Garden Solutions, bioluminescence | New Hampshire Garden Solutions, Lichen | symbiotic organism | Britannica.com, Elegant Sunburst Lichen | New Hampshire Garden Solutions, The unexpectedly weird and beautiful world of lichens ..., Lichens, the Great Colonizers | ferrebeekeeper, Lichens, the Great Colonizers | ferrebeekeeper, Timber, bark, moss and lichen | Notes on a Spanish Valley, painting box: SUNNY SIDE UP, FS1205: Tree-Dwelling Lichens (Rutgers NJAES), Foliose Lichens | New Hampshire Garden Solutions, Whitewash Lichen | New Hampshire Garden Solutions, Amy looks closer: Lichens


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